Below is a list of textbooks which I personally think deserve the name of standard in several subareas related to computer science as of April 22, 2016. Please pardon me if some links are unavailable.

# Subarea Title Author Year ISBN-10 Notes
1 Theory of Computation Introduction to the Theory of Computation, 3rd Edition Michael Sipser 2012 113318779X Link
2 Theory of Computation Computational Complexity: A Modern Approach Sanjeev Arora and Boaz Barak 2009 0521424267 Link
3 Data Structures and Algorithms Introduction to Algorithms, 3rd Edition Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein 2009 0262033844 Link
4 Data Structures and Algorithms Algorithm Design Jon Kleinberg and Éva Tardos 2005 0321295358 Link
5 Automata and Languagues Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, 3rd Edition E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani, and Jeffrey D. Ullman 2006 0321462254 Link
6 Programming Languages Types and Programming Languages Benjamin C. Pierce 2002 0262162091 Link
7 Hardware Computer Organization and Design, 5th Edition David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy 2013 0124077269
8 Computer Systems Principles of Computer System Design: An Introduction Jerome H. Saltzer and M. Frans Kaashoek 2009 0123749573 Link
9 Computer Systems Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 5th Edition John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson 2011 012383872X Link
10 Operating Systems Operating System Concepts, 8th Edition Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, and Greg Gagne 2008 0470128720 Link
11 Network Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 5th Edition James F. Kurose and Keith W. Ross 2009 0136079679 Link
12 Compilers Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools, 2nd Edition Alfred V. Aho, Monica S. Lam, Ravi Sethi, and Jeffrey D. Ullman 2006 0321486811 Link
13 Databases Database Systems: The Complete Book, 2nd Edition Hector Garcia-Molina, Jeffrey D. Ullman, and Jennifer Wildom 2008 0131873253 Link
14 Distributed Systems Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design, 5th Edition George Coulouris, Jean Dollimore, Tim Kindberg, and Gordon Blair 2011 0132143011 Link
15 Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd Edition Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig 2009 0136042597 Link
16 Logic Language, Proof and Logic Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy 2002 157586374X Link
17 Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Ronald J. Brachman and Hector J. Levesque 2004 1558609326 Link
18 Optimization Numerical Optimization, 2nd Edition Jorge Nocedal and Stephen Wright 2006 0387303030 Link
19 Optimization Convex Optimization Stephen Boyd and Lieven Vandenberghe 2004 0521833787 Link
20 Machine Learning Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Christopher M. Bishop 2007 0387310738 Link
21 Machine Learning Probabilistic Graphical Models: Principles and Techniques Daphne Koller and Nir Friedman 2009 0262013193 Link
22 Machine Learning Deep Learning Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio, and Aaron Courville 2016 Link
23 Natural Language Processing Speech and Language Processing, 2nd Edition Daniel Jurafsky and James H. Martin 2008 0131873210 Link
24 Natural Language Processing Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing Christopher D. Manning and Hinrich Schütze 1999 0262133601 Link
25 Information Retrieval Introduction to Information Retrieval Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan, and Hinrich Schütze 2008 0521865719 Link
26 Data Mining Introduction to Data Mining Pang-Ning Tan, Michael Steinbach, and Vipin Kumar 2005 0321321367 Link
27 Software Engineering Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, 7th Edition Roger Pressman 2009 0073375977 Link